Ezetrol 10 mg
Images for reference only. Packaging will vary.
As of 2009 Ezetrol is not known to be marketed in the USA.
EZETROL tm is a registered trademark of MSP Singapore Company, LLC
Ezetrol tablets contain the active ingredient ezetimibe which acts by decreasing cholesterol absorption in the intestine.
Ezetrol* (ezetimibe), was the first of a new class of cholesterol-lowering agents since the introduction of statins to the Canadian market.
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Ezetrol General Information
Ezetrol is the registered trademark of MSP Singapore Company, LLC. Ezetrol (Ezetimibe) is recommended primarily for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, a homozygous low-density lipoprotein receptor disorder, according to the National Institute of Health. It is primarily recognized as Ezetrol in European and Asian nations. In the United States it is marketed as Zetia alone or as Vytorin or Inegy with statins.
This is typically a treatment option for patients whose cholesterol is not controlled by the initial statin after the appropriate dosage. The National Institute of Health showed evidence that Ezetimibe or Ezetrol with statin therapy reduced LDL cholesterol by 23.2 percent more than statin therapy alone. Doubling the dose of statin therapy or switching to an alternative statin generally lead to a further reduction of LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the blood plasma.
How does Ezetrol work?
Ezetrol is used to lower cholesterol levels and acts by inhibiting cholesterol absorption in the small intestine. Ezetrol appears to binds to the Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) protein on the gastrointestinal tract epithelial cells and hepatocytes. The NPC1L1 is a critical mediator of cholesterol absorption. This process decreases intestinal delivery of cholesterol to the liver. The result yields a decreased cholesterol level. Decreased cholesterol absorption also leads to a regulation of LDL-receptors on the surface of the cells and an increased LDL-cholesterol uptake into the cells. This process decreases the levels of LDL in the blood plasma which can contribute to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular occurrences.
When/How is Ezetrol taken/used/applied?
Ezetrol is available in 10 mg tablets. The recommended dose of Ezetrol is a 10 mg tablet once daily with a glass of water. Ezetrol is eliminated from the blood plasma within 22 hours allowing for once daily dosage. The medication can be taken with or without food.
Ezetrol should not be taken with cyclosporine, fenofibrate or gemfibrozil due to increased Ezetrol blood level. Fibrates may increase the risk of cholesterol excretion into the gallbladder. Chelostyramine may decrease Ezetrol blood level. Immunosuppressants may increase bone marrow depression and increase immunosuppression.
Ezetrol may also interact with antacids, herbal medicines that lower cholesterol or other medication that lower cholesterol or triglycerides. This list may not describe all possible interactions. Consult your physician before combining other medications with Ezetrol.
Other items that may cause complications are smoking, alcohol, and illegal drugs.
Side Effects of Ezetrol
Patients may experience skin rash, itching or hives, characteristic of anaphylaxis and swelling of the face, lips or tongue, characteristic of angioedema. Some patients have reported fatigue, yellowing of the skin or eyes and dark yellow or brown urine. If the patient experiences any of these symptoms he or she should consult your physician immediately.
If the patient experiences diarrhea, dizziness, headache, stomach upset or pain, medical attention is generally not required unless the symptoms are persistent or unbearable.
Also consult your physician if you have unexplained muscle pain, characteristic of myalgia, weakness, characteristic of myopathy or tenderness.
Some other side effects include gastro-intestinal disturbances, and rarely, arthralgia, hepatitis, pancreatitis, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, thrombocytopenia, raised creatine kinase, and rhabdommyolysis.
Other Brand Names for Ezetrol:
Vytorin (Ezetimibe with statins)
Inegy (Ezetimibe with statins)
Patients are advised not to get pregnant or try to get pregnant while taking this medication. Patients are also advised not to breastfeed while taking this medication. If you have liver disease or suffer from allergic reactions to Ezetimibe or Ezertrol, other medicines, food, dyes or preservatives, consult a physician before taking the medication.
Tablet/Pill 10 mg once per day
The oral pill is white and oblong in shape with side 1:414.
What Ezetrol is used for
EZETROL helps to reduce the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood in conjunction with lifestyle changes including exercise, diet, and weight management, when a response to such changes has been inadequate.
Cholesterol is one of several fatty substances found in the bloodstream. Your total cholesterol is made up mainly of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and HDL cholesterol).
LDL cholesterol is often called “bad” cholesterol because it can build up in the walls of your arteries forming plaque. Eventually this plaque build-up can lead to a narrowing of the arteries. This narrowing can slow or block blood flow to vital organs such as the heart and brain. This blocking of blood flow can result in a heart attack or stroke.
HDL cholesterol is often called “good” cholesterol because it helps keep the bad cholesterol from building up in the arteries and protects against heart disease.
Triglycerides are another form of fat in your blood that may increase your risk for heart disease.
EZETROL may be taken alone or with other cholesterol-lowering medicines known as statins or with another medicine known as fenofibrate, in addition to diet and other lifestyle changes (see Interactions with This Medication:). EZETROL adds to the cholesterol-lowering effect of statins and fenofibrate. Statins and fenofibrate lower cholesterol in a different way; they work in the liver.
What Ezetrol does
EZETROL works by decreasing the absorption of cholesterol in the small intestine.
When Ezetrol should not be used
Patients who are hypersensitive (allergic) to ezetimibe or any of the nonmedicinal ingredients should not take EZETROL.
Patients with liver disease, active or unexplained increases in liver enzymes (blood tests of liver function) should not take EZETROL together with a statin.
Patients who are pregnant should not take EZETROL together with a statin.
Patients who are nursing should not take EZETROL together with a statin.
What the medicinal ingredient is
What the important nonmedicinal ingredients for Ezetrol are
Croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, and sodium lauryl sulfate.
What dosage forms Ezetrol comes in
Tablet 10 mg (white to off-white).
Warnings and Precautions
Serious Warnings and Precautions
Liver disease (Hepatitis)
Pancreas disease (Pancreatitis)
Muscle pain (Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis, myalgia)
Severe allergic reaction (Anaphylaxis)
Before you use EZETROL talk to your doctor if you
are pregnant, plan to become pregnant or think you might be pregnant.
are breast-feeding. EZETROL may be passed in your milk to your baby.
have now or have had in the past any medical problems (including liver disease or liver problems).
Interactions with Ezetrol
You should always tell your doctor about all drugs that you are taking or plan to take as well as those obtained without a prescription.
Drugs that may interact with EZETROL include:
Cholestyramine (a resine/bile acid sequestrant) or any other bile acid sequestrant. In that case, EZETROL should be taken at least 2 hours before or 4 hours after taking the bile acid sequestrant.
Proper Use of Ezetrol
EZETROL should be taken as directed. Take one 10 mg tablet by mouth each day, preferably at the same time of day. EZETROL can be taken with or without food.
Continue taking your other cholesterol-lowering medicines known as statins or fenofibrate unless your doctor tells you to stop.
If you are taking a statin or fenofibrate, EZETROL can be taken at the same time.
Even if you are taking medication to treat high cholesterol, it is important to have your cholesterol measured regularly. You should also know your cholesterol levels and goals.
Take EZETROL only as prescribed for you. If you take more EZETROL than you were prescribed, contact your doctor or pharmacist.
For management of a suspected drug overdose, contact your regional Poison Control Centre.
If you miss a dose, just resume the usual schedule of one tablet daily.
Side Effects for Ezetrol and What to Do About Them
EZETROL is generally well tolerated.
When used alone, the following common side effects have been reported: abdominal pain, diarrhea, tiredness, viral infection, throat infection (pharyngitis), nose infection (sinusitis), joint pain (arthralgia), back pain, and coughing.
When used with a statin, the following common side effects have been reported: headache, tiredness, abdominal pain, diarrhea, joint pain (arthralgia), muscle pain (myalgia), back pain, throat infection (pharyngitis), nose infection (sinusitis), upper chest infection (respiratory tract), and changes in certain laboratory blood tests.
In general use, the following side effects have been reported: dizziness, depression and tingling sensation.
You should contact your doctor if you develop persistent and severe muscle aches or pains with no obvious explanation at any time after starting to take EZETROL.
If you are prescribed EZETROL with a statin, your doctor will order routine blood tests to check your liver function before and after starting treatment.
Talk to your doctor anytime you have a medical problem you think may be related to EZETROL.
|Serious Side Effects, How Often They Happen and What to Do About Them|
|Symptoms/effects||Talk with your doctor or pharmacist||Stop taking drug and call your doctor or pharmacist|
|Only if severe||In all cases|
|Rare||Muscle aches and pains (Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis)||•|
|Sudden severe allergic reactions (swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and/or throat that may cause difficulty in breathing or swallowing, rash and hives).||•|
|Symptoms of liver problems (severe abdominal pain, especially if felt on the upper right side below the ribs, dark urine, general itchiness, severe nausea or vomiting, pale stools, yellowing of skin or eyes)||•|
|Symptoms of gallstones or inflammation of the gallbladder (severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting)||•|
|Symptoms of pancreas problems (severe abdominal pain)||•|
This is not a complete list of side effects. For any unexpected effects while taking EZETROL, contact your doctor or pharmacist.
In a pharmacokinetic study, concomitant gemfibrozil administration increased total ezetimibe concentrations approximately 1.7-fold. This increase is not considered clinically significant. No clinical data are available.
Concomitant cholestyramine administration decreased the mean AUC of total ezetimibe (ezetimibe+ezetimibe-glucuronide) approximately 55%. The incremental LDL-C reduction due to adding ezetimibe to cholestyramine may be lessened by this interaction.
Caution should be exercised when initiating ezetimibe in the setting of cyclosporine. Cyclosporine concentrations should be monitored in patients receiving EZETROL and cyclosporine.
In a study of eight post-renal transplant patients with creatinine clearance of >50 mL/min on a stable dose of cyclosporine, a single 10 mg dose of ezetimibe resulted in a 3.4-fold (range 2.3- to 7.9-fold) increase in the mean AUC for total ezetimibe compared to a healthy control population from another study (n=17). In a different study, a renal transplant patient with severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance of 13.2 mL/min/1.73 m2) who was receiving multiple medications, including cyclosporine, demonstrated a 12-fold greater exposure to total ezetimibe compared to concurrent controls.
In contrast, in a two-period crossover study in twelve healthy subjects, daily administration of 20 mg ezetimibe for 8 days with a single 100-mg dose of cyclosporine on Day 7 resulted in a mean 15% increase in cyclosporine AUC (range 10% decrease to 51% increase) compared to a single 100-mg dose of cyclosporine alone.
Coadministration of ezetimibe (10 mg once daily) with oral contraceptives had no significant effect on the bioavailability of ethinyl estradiol or levonorgestrel in a study of eighteen healthy adult females.
The safety and effectiveness of ezetimibe coadministered with fenofibrate have been evaluated in a clinical study (see Warnings and Precautions and Adverse Reactions); coadministration of ezetimibe with other fibrates has not been studied. Fibrates may increase cholesterol excretion into the bile, leading to cholelithiasis. In a preclinical study in dogs, ezetimibe increased cholesterol in the gallbladder bile. Although the relevance of this preclinical finding to humans is unknown, coadministration of EZETROL with fibrates (other than fenofibrate) is not recommended until use in patients is studied.
In a study of twelve healthy adult males, steady-state levels of ezetimibe (10 mg once daily) had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glipizide. A single dose of glipizide (10 mg) had no significant effect on the exposure to total ezetimibe or ezetimibe.
In a pharmacokinetic study, concomitant fenofibrate administration increased total ezetimibe concentrations approximately 1.5-fold. This increase is not considered clinically significant.
No clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions have been observed between ezetimibe and drugs known to be metabolized via CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2C8, 2C9, and 3A4 isoenzymes, or N-acetyltransferase such as caffeine, dextromethorphan, tolbutamide, and IV midazolam. It has been shown that ezetimibe neither induces, nor inhibits, these cytochrome P450 isoenzymes.
No clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions were seen when ezetimibe was coadministered with atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin or rosuvastatin.
Concomitant administration of ezetimibe (10 mg once daily) had no significant effect on bioavailability of warfarin and prothrombin time in a study of twelve healthy adult males. As with the initiation of any medication in patients treated with warfarin or another coumarin anticoagulant, additional International Normalised Ratio (INR) measurements are recommended for patients administered warfarin or another coumarin anticoagulant concomitantly with EZETROL.
Concomitant administration of ezetimibe (10 mg once daily) had no significant effect on the bioavailability of digoxin and the ECG parameters (HR, PR, QT, and QTc intervals) in a study of twelve healthy adult males.
Concomitant antacid (aluminum and magnesium hydroxide) administration decreased the rate of absorption of ezetimibe but had no effect on the bioavailability of ezetimibe. This decreased rate of absorption is not considered clinically significant.
Drug-drug interactions are known or suspected with cholestyramine, cyclosporine and fibrates.
Multiple doses of cimetidine (400 mg twice daily) had no significant effect on the oral bioavailability of ezetimibe and total ezetimibe in a study of twelve healthy adults.
Information for the Patient
Dosage and Administration
No dosage adjustment is required in patients with mild hepatic insufficiency (Child-Pugh score 5 to 6). Treatment with EZETROL is not recommended in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh score 7 to 9) or severe (Child-Pugh score >9) liver dysfunction (see Warnings and Precautions, Hepatic/Biliary/Pancreatic, Patients with Liver Impairment).
Children and adolescents ≥10 years: No dosage adjustment is required (see Warnings and Precautions, Special Populations, Pediatrics).
No dosage adjustment is required for elderly patients (see Warnings and Precautions, Special Populations, Geriatrics).
Patients should be placed on a standard cholesterol-lowering diet at least equivalent to the NCEP Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) TLC diet before receiving EZETROL, and should continue on this diet during treatment with EZETROL. If appropriate, a program of weight control and physical exercise should be implemented.
Prior to initiating therapy with EZETROL, secondary causes for elevations in plasma lipid levels should be excluded. A lipid profile should also be performed.
EZETROL should be administered either 2 hours or longer before or 4 hours or longer after administration of a bile acid sequestrant (see Drug Interactions, Drug-Drug Interactions, Cholestyramine).
The recommended dose of EZETROL is 10 mg once daily orally, alone, with a statin, or with fenofibrate. EZETROL can be taken with or without food at any time of the day but preferably at the same time each day.
No dosage adjustment is required for patients with renal impairment (see Warnings and Precautions, Renal, Renal Insufficiency).
The recommended dosing regimen is one tablet, once daily. If a dose is missed, the patient should be counselled to resume the usual schedule of one tablet daily.
In a clinical study involving 625 patients treated for up to 12 weeks and 576 patients treated for up to 1 year, coadministration of EZETROL and fenofibrate was well tolerated. This study was not designed to compare treatment groups for infrequent events. Incidence rates (95% CI) for clinically important elevations (>3×ULN, consecutive) in serum transaminases were 4.5% (1.9, 8.8) and 2.7% (1.2, 5.4) for fenofibrate monotherapy and EZETROL coadministered with fenofibrate, respectively, adjusted for treatment exposure. Corresponding incidence rates for cholecystectomy were 0.6% (0.0, 3.1) and 1.7% (0.6, 4.0) for fenofibrate monotherapy and EZETROL coadministered with fenofibrate, respectively (see Warnings and Precautions, Fenofibrate and Drug Interactions). There were no CPK elevations >10×ULN in either treatment group in this study.
The most commonly reported adverse events in clinical studies were upper respiratory tract infection, headache, myalgia and back pain. In post-marketing use, serious adverse events reported rarely or very rarely, regardless of causality, included hepatitis, hypersensitivity reactions, pancreatitis and myopathy/rhabdomyolysis.
When EZETROL is to be administered with a statin or fenofibrate, please refer also to the Product Monograph for that medication.
The following adverse events have been reported rarely or very rarely, regardless of causality: increased CK (creatine phosphokinase); myalgia (see Warnings and Precautions); myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (see Warnings and Precautions); elevations of liver transaminases; hepatitis (see Warnings and Precautions); hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash and urticaria; nausea; pancreatitis (see Warnings and Precautions); thrombocytopenia; arthralgia; dizziness; cholelithiasis; cholecystitis; depression; paresthesia.
In controlled clinical monotherapy trials, the incidence of clinically important consecutive elevations in serum transaminases (ALT and/or AST ≥3×ULN) was similar between EZETROL (0.5%) and placebo (0.3%). In coadministration trials, the incidence was 1.3% for patients treated with EZETROL coadministered with a statin and 0.4% for patients treated with a statin alone. These elevations were generally asymptomatic, not associated with cholestasis, and returned to baseline levels after discontinuation of therapy or with continued treatment.
In clinical trials there was no excess of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis associated with EZETROL compared with the relevant control arm (placebo or statin alone). However, myopathy and rhabdomyolysis are known adverse reactions to statins and other lipid-lowering drugs. In clinical trials, the incidence of CK >10×ULN was 0.2% for EZETROL vs 0.1% for placebo, and 0.1% for EZETROL coadministered with a statin vs 0.4% for statin alone.
EZETROL clinical trial experience involved 2486 patients in placebo-controlled monotherapy trials (1691 treated with EZETROL) and 4547 patients in active controlled trials (449 of whom were treated with EZETROL alone and 1708 treated with EZETROL plus a statin and 185 patients treated with EZETROL and fenofibrate). The studies were of 8 to 14 weeks duration. The overall incidence of adverse events reported with EZETROL was similar to that reported with placebo and the discontinuation rates due to treatment related adverse events was similar between EZETROL (2.3%) and placebo (2.1%).
Indications and Clinical Use
EZETROL, administered alone or with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin), is indicated for the reduction of elevated total cholesterol (total-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), and triglycerides (TG) and to increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in patients with primary (heterozygous familial and non-familial) hypercholesterolemia.
EZETROL, administered in combination with fenofibrate, is indicated for the reduction of elevated total-C, LDL-C, Apo B, and non-HDL-C in patients with mixed hyperlipidemia.
EZETROL is indicated for the reduction of elevated sitosterol and campesterol levels in patients with homozygous familial sitosterolemia.
EZETROL, administered with a statin, is indicated for the reduction of elevated total-C and LDL-C levels in patients with HoFH as an adjunct to treatments such as LDL apheresis or if such treatments are not possible.
For management of a suspected drug overdose, CPhA recommends that you contact your regional Poison Control Centre. See the eCPS Directories section for a list of Poison Control Centres.
In clinical studies, administration of ezetimibe, 50 mg/day to 15 healthy subjects for up to 14 days, or 40 mg/day to 18 patients with primary hypercholesterolemia for up to 56 days, was generally well tolerated.
A few cases of overdosage with EZETROL have been reported; most have not been associated with adverse experiences. Reported adverse experiences have not been serious. In the event of an overdose, symptomatic and supportive measures should be employed.
Dosage Forms, Composition and Packaging
Each white to off-white, capsule-shaped tablet, debossed with “414” on one side, contains: ezetimibe 10 mg. Nonmedicinal ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone and sodium laurylsulfate. Blisters of 30. HDPE bottles of 100.
Warnings and Precautions
In controlled clinical trials, the incidence of myalgia was 5.0% for EZETROL vs 4.6% for placebo (see Adverse Reactions, Table 2). Post-marketing reports of adverse events have included myalgia in patients taking EZETROL with or without a statin, regardless of causality. Patients should be instructed to contact their physician if they experience persistent and severe muscle pains with no obvious cause.
A number of patients treated with EZETROL, in whom myalgia occurred had previously experienced myalgia (with or without elevated CK levels) with statin therapy. Patients with a history of statin intolerance (myalgia with or without elevated CK levels) should be closely monitored for adverse muscle events during treatment with EZETROL.
If cholelithiasis is suspected in a patient receiving EZETROL and fenofibrate, gallbladder studies are indicated and alternative lipid-lowering therapy should be considered (see Adverse Reactions and the Product Monograph for fenofibrate).
In controlled monotherapy studies, the incidence of consecutive elevations (≥3 times the upper limit of normal [ULN]) in serum transaminases was similar between EZETROL (0.5%) and placebo (0.3%).
In controlled coadministration trials in patients receiving EZETROL with a statin, the incidence of consecutive transaminase elevations (≥3×ULN) was 1.3% compared to 0.4% in patients on a statin alone.
Myopathy and rhabdomyolysis are known adverse effects of statins and fibrates. Post-marketing reports of adverse events have included rare cases of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis occurring in patients taking EZETROL with or without a statin, regardless of causality. Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis should be considered in patients presenting with muscle pain during treatment with EZETROL with or without a statin or fenofibrate, and consideration given to discontinuation of the drugs. Most cases of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis resolved when drugs were discontinued.
The coadministration of ezetimibe with fibrates other than fenofibrate has not been studied. Therefore, coadministration of EZETROL and fibrates (other than fenofibrate) is not recommended (see Drug Interactions).
Plasma concentrations for total ezetimibe are slightly higher (<20%) in women than in men. LDL-C reduction and safety profile are comparable between men and women treated with ezetimibe. Therefore, no dosage adjustment is necessary on the basis of sex.
The pharmacokinetics of EZETROL in adolescents (10 to 18 years) have been shown to be similar to that in adults. Treatment experience with EZETROL in the pediatric population is limited to 4 patients (9 to 17 years) in the sitosterolemia study and 5 patients (11 to 17 years) in the HoFH study. Treatment with EZETROL in children (<10 years) is not recommended.
No clinical data on exposed pregnancies are available for EZETROL. The effects of ezetimibe on labour and delivery in pregnant women are unknown. Note that all statins and fenofibrate are contraindicated in pregnant women (see the Product Monograph for the medication). Caution should be exercised when prescribing to pregnant women.
Plasma concentrations for total ezetimibe are about 2-fold higher in the elderly (≥65 years) than in the young (18 to 45 years). LDL-C reduction and safety profile are comparable between elderly and young subjects treated with EZETROL. Therefore, no dosage adjustment is necessary in the elderly.
Based on a meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic studies, there were no pharmacokinetic differences between Blacks and Caucasians.
When EZETROL is to be administered with a statin or with fenofibrate, please refer also to the Product Monograph for that medication. Note that all statins and fenofibrate are contraindicated in pregnant women (see the Product Monograph for the medication; see Warnings and Precautions, Special Populations, Pregnant Women).
When EZETROL is initiated in a patient already taking a statin or fenofibrate, liver function tests should be considered at initiation of EZETROL therapy, and then as indicated (see Adverse Reactions, Abnormal Hematologic and Clinical Chemistry Findings).
When EZETROL is initiated at the same time as a statin or fenofibrate, liver function tests should be performed at initiation of therapy and according to the recommendations of that medication (see Adverse Reactions, Abnormal Hematologic and Clinical Chemistry Findings).
After a single 10 mg dose of EZETROL in patients with severe renal disease, the mean AUC for total ezetimibe was increased approximately 1.5-fold, compared to healthy subjects. Accordingly, no dosage adjustment is necessary for renal impaired patients.
The pharmacokinetics of ezetimibe were examined in patients with impaired liver function as defined by the Child-Pugh scoring system.
In patients with mild hepatic insufficiency (Child-Pugh score 5 or 6), the mean area under the curve (AUC) for total ezetimibe (after a single 10 mg dose of EZETROL) was increased approximately 1.7-fold compared to healthy subjects. No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with mild hepatic insufficiency.
In patients with moderate hepatic insufficiency (Child-Pugh score 7 to 9), the mean AUC for total ezetimibe (after multiple doses of 10 mg daily) was increased approximately 4-fold on Day 1 and Day 14 compared to healthy subjects. Due to the unknown effects of the increased exposure to ezetimibe in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh score 7 to 9) or severe (Child-Pugh score >9) hepatic insufficiency, ezetimibe is not recommended in these patients.
No pharmacokinetic studies with ezetimibe have been carried out in patients with either active liver disease or unexplained and persistent elevations in serum transaminases. It is recommended that care be exercised in such patients.
The coadministration of EZETROL and a statin is contraindicated in patients with active liver disease or unexplained and persistent elevations in serum transaminases.
Post-marketing reports of adverse events have included rare cases of hepatitis in patients taking EZETROL, although causality has not been proven. If patients develop signs or symptoms of hepatitis, liver function should be evaluated.
Post-marketing reports of adverse events have included rare cases of acute pancreatitis occurring in patients taking EZETROL, although causality has not been proven. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis should be considered in patients taking EZETROL who develop sudden acute abdominal pain.
Studies in rats have shown that ezetimibe is excreted in milk. It is not known whether ezetimibe is excreted into human breast milk, therefore, EZETROL should not be used in nursing mothers unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the infant. Note that all statins and fenofibrate are contraindicated in nursing women (see the Product Monograph for the medication).
Storage and Stability
Store between 15 and 30°C. Protect from moisture.
Action and Clinical Pharmacology
Ezetimibe and ezetimibe-glucuronide are bound 99.7% and 88 to 92% to human plasma proteins, respectively.
After oral administration, ezetimibe is rapidly absorbed and extensively conjugated to a phenolic glucuronide (ezetimibe-glucuronide) form which is at least as pharmacologically active as the parent drug. Mean ezetimibe peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of 3.4 to 5.5 ng/mL were attained within 4 to 12 hours (Tmax). Ezetimibe-glucuronide mean Cmax values of 45 to 71 ng/mL were achieved between 1 and 2 hours (Tmax). The extent of absorption and absolute bioavailability of ezetimibe cannot be determined as the compound is virtually insoluble in aqueous media suitable for injection.
Concomitant food administration (high fat or non-fat meals) had no effect on the extent of absorption of ezetimibe when administered as EZETROL 10 mg tablets. Cmax of ezetimibe was increased by 38% when taken with high fat meals.
EZETROL is in a new class of lipid-lowering compounds that selectively inhibit the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and related plant sterols. EZETROL is orally active, with a unique mechanism of action that differs from other classes of cholesterol-reducing compounds e.g., HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), bile acid sequestrants (resins), fibric acid derivatives, plant stanols. The molecular target of ezetimibe is the sterol transporter, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1), which is responsible for the intestinal uptake of cholesterol and phytosterols.
Although ezetimibe is rapidly absorbed and is extensively metabolized to an active phenolic glucuronide which reaches the systemic circulation after oral administration (see Action and Clinical Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, Absorption), its action is localized at the brush border of the small intestine where it inhibits the absorption of cholesterol, leading to a decrease in the delivery of intestinal cholesterol to the liver. This results in a reduction of hepatic cholesterol stores and an increase in clearance of cholesterol from the blood. Ezetimibe does not increase bile acid excretion in contrast to bile acid sequestrants and does not inhibit cholesterol synthesis in the liver as do statins. EZETROL and statins have distinct mechanisms of action that provide complementary cholesterol reduction. Administration of EZETROL with fenofibrate is effective in improving serum total-C, LDL-C, Apo B, TG, HDL-C, and non-HDL-C in patients with mixed hyperlipidemia.
Clinical studies have demonstrated that elevated levels of total-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (Apo B; the major protein constituent of LDL), promote atherosclerosis in humans. In addition, decreased levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Epidemiologic studies have established that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality vary directly with the level of total-C and LDL-C and inversely with the level of HDL-C. Like LDL, cholesterol-enriched triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, including very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), and remnants, can also promote atherosclerosis. The effects of ezetimibe given either alone or in addition to a statin or fenofibrate on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have not been established.
Preclinical studies in animals were performed to determine the selectivity of ezetimibe for inhibiting cholesterol absorption. Ezetimibe inhibited the absorption of [14C]-cholesterol with no effect on the absorption of triglycerides, fatty acids, bile acids, progesterone, ethinyl estradiol, or the fat soluble vitamins A and D.
In a study of hypercholesterolemic patients, EZETROL inhibited intestinal cholesterol absorption by 54%, compared with placebo. EZETROL had no clinically meaningful effect on the plasma concentrations of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, and E, and did not impair adrenocortical steroid hormone production.
Following oral administration of 14C-ezetimibe (20 mg) to human subjects, total ezetimibe (ezetimibe+ezetimibe-glucuronide) accounted for approximately 93% of the total radioactivity in plasma. Approximately 78% and 11% of the administered radioactivity were recovered in the faeces and urine, respectively, over a 10-day collection period. After 48 hours, there were no detectable levels of radioactivity in the plasma. Ezetimibe was the major component in faeces (69% of the administered dose) while ezetimibe-glucuronide was the major component in urine and accounted for 9% of the administered dose.
Ezetimibe is metabolized primarily in the small intestine and liver via glucuronide conjugation (a phase II reaction) with subsequent biliary and renal excretion. Minimal oxidative metabolism (a phase I reaction) has been observed in all species evaluated. Ezetimibe and ezetimibe-glucuronide are the major compounds detected in plasma. The conjugated ezetimibe-glucuronide constitutes 80-90% of plasma drug levels with ezetimibe the remaining 10-20%. Both ezetimibe and ezetimibe-glucuronide are slowly eliminated from plasma with evidence of significant enterohepatic recycling. The half-life for ezetimibe and ezetimibe-glucuronide is approximately 22 hours.
Hypersensitivity to any component of this medication.
When EZETROL is to be administered with a statin or with fenofibrate, the contraindications to that medication should be reviewed before starting concomitant therapy.
The combination of EZETROL with a statin is contraindicated in patients with active liver disease or unexplained persistent elevations in serum transaminases.
All statins and fenofibrate are contraindicated in pregnant and nursing women. When EZETROL is administered with a statin or with fenofibrate in a woman of childbearing potential, refer to the product labeling for that medication (see Warnings and Precautions, Special Populations, Pregnant Women).
What Others Are Saying About ezetrol:
Alberto Peeples on Tuesday March 24, 2009
Recently, I switched from Ezetrol to generic Ezetimibe, and didn't notice any difference, so I'll keep buying the Ezetimibe online from your website because it helps me save money. I'm grateful for your refill service -- I'm a busy person and your refill reminders let me know when it's time to buy another three month supply, or if my prescription needs to be updated.
Hector J. Smartt on Tuesday December 23, 2008
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